I received the following question:
Is there a classic paper on instrumenting for survey non-response? some colleagues in public health are going to carry out a survey and I wonder about suggesting that they build in a randomization of response-encouragement (e.g. offering additional $ to a subset of those who don’t respond initially). Can you recommend a basic treatment of this, and why it might or might not make sense compared to IPW using covariates (without an instrument)?
My reply: Here’s the best analysis I know of on the effects of incentives for survey response. There have been several survey-experiments on the subject. The short answer is that the effect on nonresponse is small and the outcome is highly variable, hence you can’t very well use it as an instrument in any particular survey.
My recommended approach to dealing with nonresponse is to use multilevel regression and poststratification; an example is here.